The Effect of ad libitum Consumption of Mixed Meals with Added Pureed Navy Beans and Yellow Peas on Satiation, Satiety, and Short-Term Food Intake in Children
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cooked, pureed navy beans (NB) and yellow peas (YP) added to a mixed meal on satiation, subjective appetite, next-meal food intake (FI), 2 hour cumulative FI, and gastrointestinal comfort over two hours in children. Using a randomized single-blinded cross-over design, 28 children (9-14y, 14 boys and 14 girls) attended three sessions and consumed one of three dietary treatments at each session. All treatments contained cooked durum wheat pasta and tomato sauce with cooked and pureed NB or YP providing 43% of energy or additional cooked and pureed pasta (C, pulse-free control). Due to the variability in the ad libitum treatment intake, participants were separated into low (<165.67kcal) and high (>165.67kcal) consumption groups based on whether their average treatment intake was above or below the median intake of all treatments. Because the low consumption group does not reflect the effect of treatment, only data from high consumption may explain the effect of added pureed pulses to a mixed meal. The data from this group (n=17, 8 boys, 9 girls, BMI %ile 70.6±6.7) indicates that although both pulse treatments resulted in higher ad libitum treatment FI compared to C (P=0.02), there was no effect of treatment on ad libitum FI at a test meal 120 min later or cumulative FI (treatment + test meal) over two hours. Analysis of subjective appetite measures indicated lower desire to eat (DTE) scores after YP (P=0.04) and NB (P=0.03) compared to C while NB tended to suppress average appetite (AA) (P=0.08) and prospective food consumption (PFC) (P=0.06) compared to C over two hours. Both pulse treatments resulted in higher dietary fibre intake (YP:12.4±0.9g; NB:15.1±1.4g) compared to C (4.6±0.5g, P<0.0001). Protein intake was also greater after NB (13.1±1.2g, P<0.0001) and YP (12.4±0.9g, P=0.003) compared to C (8.8±1.0g). The intake of the meals with added pulses did not cause any symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort. Adding pulses to pasta and tomato sauce did not change the pleasantness of the treatments. Cooked, pureed navy beans and yellow peas, when added to a mixed meal, present an effective dietary approach to increase subjective satiety and improve nutrient intake in children.
Navy beans , Satiety