The dose effect of lentil flour incorporated in a snack on blood glucose, satiety, and food intake in young male adults
Mount Saint Vincent University
Functional foods are seeing increased potential for use in improving the health outcomes of Canadians, specifically in a population experiencing an aging demographic with increased rates of overweight, obesity, and chronic diseases. Pulses have been recognized for their added health benefits, when consumed as both a whole pulse, or as a processed ingredient added to foods. Many novel methods of processing pulses have been developed to increase their access as an added functional ingredient in food product development. While there are some differences in the functional properties of pulse ingredients based on the processing methods, there is little translation of the method of processing used to produce pulse ingredients to the consumer. The current investigation sought to quantify the dose needed to elicit a positive effect on post-prandial glycaemic control and short term food intake in male subjects/participants following consumption of a solid snack food product formulated with whole lentil flour. The secondary objective was to measure the subjective feelings of hunger in participants. There were four treatments used in this study: an energy-free water control, a snack bar formulated with 24g wheat flour, a bar replacing 12g of wheat flour with lentil flour, and a snack bar with 24g of lentil flour. The wheat and lentil flours used for this study were controlled for particle size, with 79μm and 94μm grind sizes, respectively. A sample of healthy men (n=12), aged 19-30 were recruited, and consumed one of the four treatments after completing an overnight fast followed by consumption of a standardized breakfast. Blood samples were collected at time 0,10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, and analysed for glucose. Short term intake was measured via an ad libitum pizza meal consumed at the end of the 2 hour study period. There was an effect of 12g lentil flour on suppressing subjective feelings of appetite by ~10% compared to the wheat-based control. While not significant, this effect appeared to significantly impact short term food intake (p˂0.05). The bar formulated with 12g lentil flour resulted in a non-significant reduction of subsequent food intake by 122kcal compared to the wheat-based control, and 230 kcal compared to the water control. There was no effect of treatment for both caloric treatments and water free control on mean 2 hour blood glucose or tAUC, iAUC or niAUC values. While there were no significant effects seen on blood glucose over the 2-hour study period, both treatments containing lentil flour appeared to delay the post-prandial glycaemic response, resulting in a smaller increase in blood glucose concentration compared to the wheat control. The addition of as little as 12g of pulse flour may play a role in satiety, food intake, and delayed post-prandial glycaemia.
Lentil Flour, functional foods, pulses,