The Effect of Mixed Meals with Added Pureed Beans and Peas on Satiety and Food Intake in Children
Yu, Connie Jing Nan
Mount Saint Vincent University
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cooked, pureed navy beans (NB) and yellow peas (YP) on satiety, subsequent food intake and subjective appetite over two hours in 9 to 14 year old children. Methods: In a within-subjects randomized single-blinded controlled cross-over design, 25 children (10 boys and 15 girls) were randomly assigned to consume one of the three isocaloric treatments (250kcal) at each session: 1) pureed NB added to cooked durum wheat pasta with tomato sauce (331.56 g, 12.98 g protein, 14.99 g fibre, 0.83 g fat, 47.37 g carbohydrate); 2) pureed YP added to cooked durum wheat pasta with tomato sauce (322.58 g, 12.66 g protein, 11.59 g fibre, 0.88 g fat, 47.56 g carbohydrate) and 3) additional cooked pureed pasta added to cooked durum wheat pasta with tomato sauce (394.32 g, 10.41 g protein, 5.42 g fibre, 0.78 g fat, 29.79 g carbohydrate). Pureed NB, YP and pasta were added to the meal as 44% of energy. Subjective appetite and gastrointestinal comfort were assessed at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min throughout the study session. Results: Due to the variability in age, weight status and pubertal stage, participants were separated into 1) younger group (9.8y-12.6y) and older group (12.7y-14.8y); 2) lighter-to-normal weight group (underweight and normal weight) and heavier group (overweight and obese); 3) pre-menarcheal and post-menarcheal for girls, and group I (Tanner’s stages 1 & 2) and group II (Tanner’s stages 3 & 4) for boys. There was no effect of treatment on subsequent ad libitum food intake at the test meal 120 min later both in terms of weight and energy. There was a significantly higher solid cumulative food intake (treatment + test meal) in weight with the control treatment compared to that of both NB and YP treatments (P=0.001). When adding the volume of the water provided at the treatment meal to the solid cumulative food intake, there was no significant difference in weight among the treatments (P=0.4). Younger children and lighter-to-normal weight children had significantly lower food intake compared to their older (P=0.001) and heavier (P=0.007) counterparts, respectively. Pre-menarcheal girls had significantly lower food intake both in weight (P=0.03) and energy (P=0.04) compared to post-menarcheal girls, boys at Tanner’s stages 1 & 2 had significantly lower food intake in energy (P=0.04) than those at Tanner's stages 3 & 4. Analysis of subjective appetite measures showed lower average appetite after the control compared to both pulse treatments (P=0.02), there was lower hunger after the control compared to YP (P=0.03) and a lower prospective food consumption after the control compared to NB (P=0.01). Analysis of gastrointestinal comfort indicated a lower average physical comfort (P= 0.006) and higher flatulence (P=0.02) after YP compared to both NB and control, there was also a higher stomach discomfort after YP compared to NB (P=0.03). All differences of gastrointestinal parameters were in the lowest decile (<10%), which was not clinically meaningful. Adding pulses to pasta and tomato sauce did not change the pleasantness, taste, mouthfeel, flavour and sweetness of the treatments. Conclusion: Cooked and pureed pulses added to pasta and sauce were well tolerated, led to similar suppression of short-term food intake as the pasta control, had acceptable palatability and resulted in increased fibre intake.
Satiety , Food intake