The effect of dairy and non-dairy snack products on glycemic regulation in overweight and obese boys

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Gheller, Brandon
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Mount Saint Vincent University
The rise in childhood obesity is associated with an increase in T2DM in children in Canada. An increase in snacking associated with higher energy and sugar intakes and a shift in consumption of traditional food groups have been identified as risk factors for both obesity and diabetes in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dairy and non-dairy snacks on glycemia in over weight and obese boys. Methods: In a repeated measures crossover design, over weight (85th-95th BMI percentile) and obese (95th-99th BMI percentile) boys (n =7, age: 9-14 y) , were randomly assigned to consume one of two treatments: Greek-style sugar-sweetened yogurt (198.9 g, 171 kcal, 0 g fat, 26.1 g total carbohydrate, 23.9 g sugar, 1.1 g fibre, 17 g protein) and mini sandwich type cookies (37.5 g, 175 kcal, 7.5 g fat, 26.3 g total carbohydrate, 15 g sugar, 1.3 g fibre, 1.3 g protein). Both treatments contained 25 g of available carbohydrates. After an overnight fast, children consumed a standardized breakfast in the morning, two hours before arriving at the lab. Venous blood samples were collected for glucose, insulin and C-Peptide at 0 min (immediately before the treatment), and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Insulin secretion was calculated from deconvolution of plasma C-peptide and hepatic insulin extraction was calculated as mean C-peptide divided by mean insulin. Results: There was no difference between treatments in baseline glucose and insulin values. There was an effect of treatment (P=0.05) and time (P<0.0001) on glucose over 120 min but there was no time x treatment interaction (P=0.3). There was an effect of treatment (P=0.0001), time (P<0.0001) and a time x treatment interaction (P<0.0001) on insulin over 120 min. Mean two hour concentrations of glucose and insulin were 5% lower and 46% higher after the treatment with yogurt compared to the treatment with cookies, respectively. Pre-hepatic insulin secretion was not different between treatments (P=0.017) however, there was an effect of treatment (P=0.001) and a time x treatment interaction (P<0.05) on hepatic insulin extraction. At 30 min (P<0.05) and 60 min (P=0.05) the dairy snack resulted in lower hepatic insulin extraction compared to the non-dairy snack. The higher content of protein in the yogurt treatment (17 g) compared to the cookies treatment (1.3 g) may explain the observed difference between the treatments. Conclusion: In 9-14 y old over weight and obese boys a dairy snack reduced glycemia and increased circulating insulin levels by a reduction in hepatic insulin secretion 120 min after consumption compared to a non-dairy snack matched for available carbohydrate without affecting subjective appetite and subsequent food intake. 3
Dairy snacks , Glycemia , Childhood obesity