Browsing Department of Family Studies and Gerontology by Issue Date
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- ItemPlacing feminist education within the three paradigms of knowledge and action(Family Relations, 2002-07) Humble, Áine M.; Morgaine, Carol A.Use of the three paradigms of knowledge and action (instrumental‐technical, interpretive, and critical‐emancipatory) to achieve the goals of feminist family education is explored. Each paradigm is described, including its underlying assumptions and when it is useful to use. Feminist methods in selected Family Relations articles between 1988–1999 are examined for their illustration of the three paradigms. Various challenges in using the interpretive and critical‐emancipatory paradigms also are discussed.
- ItemFamily work and relationships: Lessons from families of men whose jobs require travel(Family Relations, 2005-07) Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Solomon, Catherine R.; Humble, Áine M.; Manoogian, MargaretThis study explores how family members experience their lives when family breadwinners must be absent from home because of their jobs. Informed by general systems theory and contextual perspectives, we described wives’ family work that supports the breadwinner role and maintains the emotional connections among family members. From our findings about how families of commercial fishermen and long‐haul truckers manage their time and their paid and unpaid work, we applied their challenges and strategies to other families experiencing difficulties related to time and work involvement.
- ItemPatterns and predictors of home care utilization in Eastern Canada: Analyzing changes over a 5-year period (1996 - 2001)(Mount Saint Vincent University, 2005-10) Hawkins, GlendaResearch on home care is relevant and important to the health of Canadians. Home care provides services that allow individuals to remain within their own homes for as long as possible by maintaining their physical, mental, social, and emotional wellbeing, preventing the deterioration of health and the need for institutionalization and substituting acute care services provided within hospitals. Given the relative value and priority being placed on home care programs to meet cost-effective demands, it is important to understand home care usage. The goal of this research project was to analyze trends in the utilization and composition of government-supported home care services in Eastern Canada in 1996 and in 2001 using a behavioral model developed by Andersen (1968). Secondary data from the 1996/97 National Population Health Survey and the 2000/01 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed to address four main research questions: (a) What are the socio-demographic and health characteristics of home care users in 1996 and in 2001, and has that profile changed over time; (b) Has the proportion of users for each type of service received (including nursing, other health care, personal care, homemaking, and respite) changed between 1996 and 2001; (c) Has the pattern of usage (e.g., the number of different types of services an individual received) changed between 1996 and 2001; and (d) What are the predictors of home care utilization in 1996 and in 2001 and have they changed over time? Results revealed that over time home care user characteristics associated with nursing service use (i.e., younger age, higher income, recently hospitalized) have become more dominant. These changes correspond to a substantial increase in the proportion of home care users receiving nursing services and a simultaneous decline in the proportion receiving homemaking services over the same time period. These findings which support Andersen’s model, suggest that essential components to predict home care service usage in Eastern Canada should include need factors (needing assistance with activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living and hospitalization), which were the greatest predictors of home care use, followed by predisposing (age), and enabling factors (income). These results can be explained by the current political context in which the need to provide cost-effective services has resulted in the prioritization of short-term acute care services, often at the expense of long-term chronic care services. As this trend continues, in combination with population aging and the limited availability of caregivers, the demand for home care services could be exponential. Decision makers within government must act to ensure that the care needs of all clients, acute or chronic, are met and that the initial foundation on which home care programs were built be maintained and strengthened.
- ItemA Freirean approach to family life education: Conducting a graduate institute in Jamaica(Convergence,, 2006) Taber, Nancy; Humble, Áine M.; Norris, DeborahThis paper discusses an international, intensive 10-day graduate institute called A Freirean Approach to Family Life Education, conducted in Jamaica. Details on the coordination of the programme and administration of the course are given, and then a brief overview of Jamaican families is provided. Emancipatory family life education is described, drawing on both Paulo Freire's work and Freirean-influenced work. Final sections of the paper describe the planning and experience of the institute. Issues of cultural divergence and convergence are explored, focusing on family diversity and sexual orientation. Pedagogical recommendations for educators involved in cross-cultural Freirean adult education are provided, including the importance of international educators being prepared to take a stand to support social justice.
- ItemFeminism and mentoring of graduate students(Family Relations, 2006-01) Humble, Áine M.; Solomon, Catherine R.; Allen, Katherine R.; Blaisure, Karen R.; Johnson, Michael P.A small body of mentoring literature exists, but how mentoring relates to feminist supervision of graduate students has not been explicitly addressed. Because mentoring typically socializes individuals into a preexisting structure that feminist scholars may be challenging, critiquing, and attempting to change, important considerations arise for feminist mentoring. Three established feminist educators’ stories of mentoring are presented. Commonalities and concerns are identified, and implications for graduate pedagogy are presented.
- ItemFactors Predicting Support Utilization by Older Adults(2007-09) Engel, LindsayThe Canadian population is aging and as it ages, there are concomitant increases in the numbers of older women with high incidences of disability when compared to men. Of particular interest for this study are the higher incidences of older women with Alzheimer’s disease or a related dementia (Lindsay et al., 2002; National Advisory Council on Aging, 2004). This is because women have a unique interaction with systems and with the individuals who provide care for them. This uniqueness of interaction influences their roles and affects their ability to utilize services. To study this population the Andersen-Newman model of Health Service Utilization was developed in the 1960s in an attempt to study the health service utilization patterns of minority groups, like older women. It encompasses three factors: predisposing, enabling, and need. Based on the literature surrounding gender, dementia, and their inclusion within Andersen Newman model, two questions were explored. One, are there gender differences in the utilization of formal support services, across different age categories and level of cognitive impairment, while controlling for level of need? Second, what characteristics predict the utilization of formal supports only, informal supports only, both informal and formal supports? Samples for the study were derived from the 2002 General Social Survey (16) on Social Support and Aging. Multivariate analyses were used to answer both research questions. Initially, question one results yielded no significant differences between women and men, across different age categories, or levels of impairment. Further analysis results indicated significant differences with level of impairment only, and there were no significant differences across gender or age. The fact that there were no significant gender differences in question one is counterintuitive because a higher reliance on formal supports should be seen by women due to levels of disability, poverty, and willingness to access care. Regarding level of impairment the fact that those with the lowest level of problems with memory and/or cognition received the most help leads to two possible conclusions. One hand, formal care services are being provided preventively at the first sign of impairment. On the other hand, those women with the greatest need may be not receiving the help they need. To answer the second research question, three separate stepwise logistic regressions were performed comparing individuals who receive formal support services to those who receive none, informal to none, and both to none. The models containing formal and both significantly predicted of the use of service supports (Above 75%). Predisposing, enabling, and need factors had significant predictor variables, although need accounted for the greatest amount of variance. Results raised concerns about reduced likelihood of formal services among persons with higher levels of dementia, and the need for greater attention in policy and practice to recognize and formally support persons with dementia. While gender did not significantly impact whether individuals utilized support services, the models do provide a framework for assessment providing information on who is using the system currently and who should be using the system but has not.
- ItemPalliative care in long-term care: A multi-methods approach to assessing quality(2007-09) McEvenue, Shannon; Keefe, JaniceLong-term care facilities provide care for chronic illness, usually until death yet little research is directed at the provision of palliative are in these settings. With the population in Canada aging an increasing number of people will require long-term care services including hospice palliative care. There is a need for empirical knowledge that will contribute to policy development, implementation, and evaluation in this increasingly important area of health care service delivery. The main objective of this research was to define high quality hospice palliative care service delivery through the exploration of approaches taken to provide palliative care at Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) facilities across Canada. This study was guided by the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association’s (CHPCA) (2002) A Model to Guide Hospice Palliative Care. Five facilities across Canada were selected for their high quality of palliative care programming as defined by representatives from VAC. Data collection included written policies submitted by participating facilities, interviews with two key informants from each facility, and field observations of three front-line care workers at one facility. Analysis involved coding of data using QSR NUD*IST software. A normative policy analysis of the coded data was conducted using the CHPCA model as a policy framework. Results indicated that the components of the studied policies at each facility were similar and were, for the most part, in keeping with the domains of care included in the CHPCA model. Each of the programs were well resourced. Approaches to program implementation were individualized based on facility needs. Barriers to care included ii pain assessment of residents with dementia, interpersonal conflict, and human resource deficiencies during expected deaths and health crises. A lack of recognition of the emotional toll paid by front-line workers was also determined to be a barrier to quality care. Enhancers included a wide range of service availability, knowledgeable front-line care workers, and a high capacity for maintaining continuity of care through effective communication, interpersonal relations, and team approach to care. Findings suggest that the principles of palliative care were evident in the programs provided by participating facilities and their experiences may enable other facilities to introduce palliative care. The hospice palliative care services available at the participating facilities provided a quality of life for residents that effectively demonstrated a need for improved funding and services in this area of care at long-term care facilities across Canada. Although participating facilities were well funded, further resources needed to be directed towards providing emotional support and bereavement care for both families and care providers.
- ItemThe Translation of Principles into Practice in Family Resource Centres(2007-09) Saunders, Elizabeth Jean; Norris, DeborahFamily resource centres contribute to a strong social infrastructure by recognizing the possible long-term negative impact of familial stress on the family unit, particularly those which involve young children, and attempting to reduce these stresses through the provision of familial support. Family support centres view parenting as a developmental process in which parents' skills, knowledge and insights develop in concert with their children's development. Family resource centres are guided by a number of principles that reflect the philosophy, goals, objectives, and desired outcomes of family support practice. Despite the anecdotal evidence supporting the effectiveness of family resource programs, there is very little known about how or why they can be effective. Without an investigation of how programs function, we are significantly limited in our understanding of how to improve them. Using Malcolmson's (2002) conceptual framework for family support practice and Bronfenbrenner's Ecological theory, this research addresses this issue through an exploration of how the principles of family resource centres are translated into practice, how these translations vary across centres, and how this variance impacts on participant outcomes. Principles were utilized differently at various stages of program development and program design. Although all principles were deemed equally valuable to practice, three themes reflect the most frequently cited principles: community-centered approach, participants' voices, and partnerships. Factors most likely to affect outcomes are quality of staff, the atmosphere of a centre, and trust between participants and practitioners, while ideological barriers remain a constant barrier to positive participant outcomes. Family resource centres would benefit from a public relations strategy that would educate and inform the public of the work that takes place within the centres. Family resource centres are not solely open to low-income, single parent families; parental education would be beneficial to families from a broad range of backgrounds. A Provincial family resource association may be able to take on this PR task and raise the visibility of FRCs, as well implant standards as act as an information centre. The role of such an association may be especially useful in ensuring that FRCs have a voice and advocate their perspective instrumental role in initiatives such as the new NS Department of Community Services Family and Youth Services Division, whose development stemmed from a recommendation of the recently released Nunn Inquiry. The Inquiry, much like family resource centres, advocates for focus on two key areas: early intervention and prevention. A collaborative effort between family resource centres and the DCS could be key to ensuring that more families are able to take advantage of programming that focuses on early intervention and prevention.
- ItemLet’s talk about sex: A glimpse into Nova Scotia youths’ perceptions of high school sexuality education(2007-09) Brushett, Chantal; Humble, AineTeen sexuality is a topic of great importance because youth are becoming sexually active at ages that belie their teen years and are experiencing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at high rates. Not only does this warrant attention, but it also necessitate research and education. Sexuality education is essential for providing sexual health to all Canadians, especially Canadian youth. Yet, even though all provinces and territories offer youth-based sexual health education, the comprehensiveness, effectiveness, and quality of the programs vary significantly. Further, the Canadian Guidelines for Sexual Health Education are not being adhered to in all Nova ScotiaÃ¢ s high schools. The main objective of this research was to investigate the perceptions of a select group of Nova Scotian youth with regard to sexuality education. Bearing in mind aspects of critical theory, particularly ComstockÃ¢ s (1982) method for critical research and SmithÃ¢ s (1995) notion of the line of fault, face-to-face interviews were conducted with ten Nova Scotian youth (eight females, two males) to determine their perceptions of the effectiveness of sexuality education in the Nova Scotia school system. All interviews were tape-recorded and later transcribed. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory techniques (Bernard, 2000), relying primarily on open and axial coding. Results indicated that participants were not satisfied with the sexuality education that they received in high school. Four themes were apparent. Interviewees felts that the iii sexuality information that they received in high school was limited in its coverage. Although most participants realized that teachers have little control over sexuality education curriculum, they felt that their sexuality education facilitators were unqualified and uncomfortable. All youth interviewed expressed a desire to have additional and improved sexuality education resources in Nova ScotiaÃ¢ s high schools. In addition, it was clear from the interviews that a holistic view of sexual health is not being promoted in Nova Scotia high schools. Several recommendations for sexuality education practice are provided.